Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2019, Page: 32-40
Assessment of Periwinkle (Tympanotonus fuscatus) Found in Crude Oil and Non Crude Oil Contaminated Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria
Nwankwo Christiana Chika, School of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Nlemanya Chioma Mercy, School of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Received: Feb. 25, 2019;       Accepted: Apr. 4, 2019;       Published: Apr. 26, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.jher.20190502.11      View  185      Downloads  28
Abstract
The assessment of periwinkles (Tympanotonus fuscatus) found in crude oil and non-crude oil contaminated area of Rivers State evaluates the physiochemical (Heavy metal, proximate analysis and total petroleum hydrocarbon) and microbial quality of periwinkle samples. The results obtained showed mean Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon values were 0.149999 mg/kg, 0.314500 mg/kg, 0.709996 mg/kg and 0.16398 mg/kg, in Bodo, Cawthorne channel, Okrika and Emohua (control) samples respectively. Heavy metals in contaminated and non–contaminated samples ranged from 10.05-22.00 mg/kg Iron(Fe), 0.25-1.05 mg/kg Zinc (Zn), 0.06-0.23 mg/kg Nickel (Ni), 0.001-0.034 mg/kg Chromium (Cr), 0.003-0.02 mg/kg Cadmium (Cd), 0.0001-0.007 mg/kg Lead (Pb), 2.01-4.02 mg/kg Manganese (Mn) and 1.05-1.97 mg/kg Copper (Cu). The proximate analysis revealed protein, moisture, fiber, ash, lipid and carbohydrate contents of all samples ranged from 23.6-30.2%, 49.0 -60.4%, 2.5-12.3%, 5.0-7.2%, 1.4-3.4% and 2.5% respectively. Total bacterial count, ranged from 5.75x103-2.37x106 cfu/g in Raw and 2.02x103-1.49x106 cfu/g in Boiled samples, while the total fungal count ranged from 2.05-3.88x103 cfu/g and 1.42–2.0x103 cfu/g in the Raw and Boiled samples respectively.. There was a statistically significant difference in microbial counts between the Raw and Boiled samples from the contaminated sites when compared to the non-contaminated site as p<0.05. The organisms isolated in the study were Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Staphylococcus sp, Enterobacter sp, Citrobacter sp, Salmonella sp, Shigella sp, Proteus sp, Micrococcus sp, E. coli, Aspergillius sp, Fusarium sp, Saccharomyces sp and Penicillium sp. Periwinkles though, nutritionally valuable had higher microbial load and harbored pathogenic microorganisms which could cause health effect if not properly cooked, the source of periwinkles should be monitored as increase in heavy metal content has toxic effect on health.
Keywords
Crude Oil, Tympanotonus fuscatus, Microorganisms, Proximate Analysis
To cite this article
Nwankwo Christiana Chika, Nlemanya Chioma Mercy, Assessment of Periwinkle (Tympanotonus fuscatus) Found in Crude Oil and Non Crude Oil Contaminated Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria, Journal of Health and Environmental Research. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2019, pp. 32-40. doi: 10.11648/j.jher.20190502.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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